I blogged recently about the prioritization of energy efficiency in the EU, driven by the 20-20-20 energy efficiency objective as well as energy independence. Pike Research has projected that as a result of the recast EU EPBD Directive and similar legislation in other parts of the world, worldwide revenue from net zero energy building construction will grow at an annual rate of 43% over the next two decades, reaching $690 billion by 2020 and $1.3 trillion by 2035, with much of the growth occurring in the EU.
In the U.S. there are a number of aggressive mandates for Federal government buildings, the idea being that the Federal government should take the lead be a model for the private sector. In 2006 a Memorandum of Understanding entitled Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings signed by 22 agencies set the stage for these initiatives. A major goal of the MOU is the implementation of common strategies for planning, acquiring, siting, designing, building, operating, and maintaining high performance and sustainable buildings.
The U.S. Federal government owns about 445,000 buildings with total floor space of over 3 billion square feet, in addition it leases 57,000 buildings with about 374 million square feet of floor space.
How the GSA is complying with these directives can be found in the GSA's FY 2011-2016 Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. A more detailed overview of the requirements can be found in the SAME Frontier Post presentation July 2011.
Executive Order 13423
Executive Order 13423 (EO 13423) "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management", signed by President Bush in 2007. The order sets goals in the areas of energy efficiency, acquisition, renewable energy, toxics reductions, recycling, renewable energy, sustainable buildings, electronics stewardship, fleets, and water conservation.
Order 13423 is a national initiative to reduce the average annual energy consumption of the entire Federal building inventory, which is the responsibility of the General Services Administration (GSA). Specifically, its goal is to
- reduce facility energy use per square foot by 3 percent per year through the end of 2015 or by 30 percent by the end of fiscal year 2015, relative to a 2003 baseline. To achieve this goal, GSA’s inventory must reach a metered annual energy consumption of approximately 55,000 BTU/GSF (British thermal units per gross square feet).
Energy Policy Act of 2005
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) signed by President Bush in 2005 addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5) Tribal energy; (6) nuclear matters and security; (7) vehicles and motor fuels, including ethanol; (8) hydrogen; (9) electricity; (10) energy tax incentives; (11) hydropower and geothermal energy; and (12) climate change technology.
EPACT 2005 requires that
- directs all Federal agencies to install advanced metering to measure electricity use in buildings.
- federal buildings be designed to use 30% less energy than they would by complying with the industry standard - ASHRAE Standard 90.1.
- increase renewable electricity consumption by the federal government by 3 percent in fiscal year 2007-2009; 5% percent in fiscal year 2010-2012; and 7.5% in fiscal year 2013 and each fiscal year thereafter.
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007) signed by President Bush in 2007 reinforces the energy reduction goals for federal agencies put forth in Executive Order 13423, as well as introduces more aggressive requirements. The three key provisions enacted are the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, the Renewable Fuel Standard, and the appliance/lighting efficiency standards.
EISA 2007 requires the GSA to reduce its designed energy consumption with respect to the average commercial building energy usage as determined by the Department of Energy’s Energy Information Agency (EIA).
- In 2010 the GSA was required to use 55% less energy than an average commercial building and continue with incremental decreases every five years.
- By 2030, GSA must construct all new facilities to be net zero energy buildings.
- Finally, EISA 2007 stipulates that every 5 years, GSA must select a third-party green building certification system, with corresponding level of certification, to document the overall sustainable performance goals of GSA’s new and modernized buildings.
Executive Order 13514
Executive Order 13514 (EO 13514), "Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance," was signed by President Obama in 2009. The goal of EO 13514 is "to establish an integrated strategy towards sustainability in the Federal Government and to make reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) a priority for Federal agencies." This EO does not rescind/eliminate the requirements of EO 13423. Instead, it expands on the energy reduction and environmental performance requirements for Federal agencies identified in EO 13423.
EO 13514 lays out the following numerical targets for Federal agencies:
- Ensure at least 15% of existing buildings and leases (>5,000 gross sq ft) meet the Guiding Principles by FY2015, with continued progress towards 100%.
- Ensure 95% of all new contracts require products and services that are energy-efficient, water-efficient, biobased, environmentally preferable, non-ozone depleting, contain recycled-content, non-toxic or less-toxic alternatives.
This EO also sets non-numerical targets that agencies must reach, including:
- Reduce building energy intensity.
- Ensure all new Federal buildings that enter the planning process in 2020 and thereafter are designed to achieve zero-net-energy standards by 2030.
The Interagency Sustainability Working Group (ISWG) created by EO 13423 has updated the Guiding Principles of the MOU of 2006 including updates to the Guiding Principles for Sustainable New Construction and Major Renovations and the creation of a separate Guiding Principles for Sustainable Existing Buildings.